Design and construction of water solar distillation, work. For floridians interested in building a solar still, a good design should be capable of producing 2 to 1 gallon of fresh water per day for each square meter 10. Givepower a new solarpowered device turns salt water into fresh drinking water. Alternative water sources description solar water distillation is the process of using the energy from sunlight to separate freshwater from salts or other contaminants. Solar still,a water purifying technique project report 1. Proposed model of solar distillation system the base of the solar still is made of g. Either using the direct heat from the sun or using electricity generated by solar cells to power a membrane process.
Another excellent publication is solar distillation as a means of meeting smallscale water demands, published in 1970 by the united nations. They are used in areas where drinking water is unavailable, so that clean water is obtained from dirty water or from plants by exposing them to sunlight. Overview of village scale, renewable energy powered. A federally funded research effort to revolutionize water treatment has yielded an offgrid technology that uses energy from sunlight alone to turn salt water into fresh drinking water. In 1872, a solar plant with capacity around 4000 m2 has been built in chile and successfully ran for many years. The solar water distillation comes out to be a nontoxic and promising device which purifies water that uses a renewable solar energy source, efficiency of the solar water distillation device can be enhanced by increasing evaporation rate that is a. Kennedy, by pressing a button from the white house. A hemispherical hole in soil in some cases containing cut plant material is covered with plastic film formed and held in a conical shape by a rock placed in the center. Were here to help you navigate stem learning at home while schools are closed due to covid19. Technology fact sheet for adaptation solar distillation i solar. Givepower a new solar powered device turns salt water into fresh drinking water.
Solar water distillation is relatively old technology for water purification compared to the latest ones. Voltek water has launched a low cost, low maintenance passive solar distiller salstill to help alleviate the chronic. People in kiunga, kenya drink water from givepowers solar powered desalination plant. Aug 26, 20 solar still,a water purifying technique project report 1. Solar distillation using a solar still is an example of direct solar desalination.
Abstractpure water is most essential for human life. Solar stills purify water through distillation, where pure water is vaporized out of collected dirty water and then condensed. These solar energy distilling plants are relatively not expensive and low. Solar distillation refers to the evaporation of aquatic solutions by means of solar energy and to the simultaneous condensation of the vapors, created by the activity of solar thermal energy. In some cases, such as extremely poor quality or salty water, solar stills may be the most practical way to treat the water. Alarconpadilla proposes the adoption of similar policies. The solar water distiller is a relatively new comer. Jun 18, 2018 to now develop renewable desalination, dr. How solarpowered desalination works sustainable clean. Design and performance evaluation of solar water distillation plant by md.
The hybrid desalting concept is the combination of two or more processes in order to provide better environmental solutions and a lower water cost product than either alone can provide. Pdf design of solar distillation system researchgate. Dynamic solar powered multistage direct contact membrane distillation system. The solar distiller should be able to provide a small family with two to four gallons of drinking water per day. Calcium carbonate must usually be added to distilled water to prevent pipe corrosion, particularly where lead pipes are used. The goal of this project is to create a solar powered water distillation device that achieves maximum efficiency while minimizing manufacturing costs per unit. Simultaneous production of fresh water and electricity via. Desalination systems are of two broad types, based upon either thermal distillation or membrane separation. Introduction for desired amount of solar radiations to be incident in the project aims at producing distilled water using solar energy to cater to the daily requirement of lead acid battery retailers. Early suggestions for hybrid desalination were based upon elimination of the requirement for a second pass to the ro process so that the highersalinity ro. This box is embedded into another box of wood shown in figure 1.
Solar distillation an overview sciencedirect topics. The cost, pretreatment requirements, and energy demand of distillation systems are relatively. Build and test a solar powered device for desalinating water and investigate how the color of the bottom of the device affects its efficiency. The solar desalination funding program will explore novel technologies that use solar thermal energy to assist in creating freshwater from otherwise unusable waters like seawater, brackish water, and contaminated water. The heat causes the water to evaporate, cool, and condense into vapour, leaving the contaminants beh. Jan 07, 2018 how the low cost passive solar distiller salstill from voltek water works. Solar desalination is a technique to produce water with a low salt concentration from sea water or brine using solar energy.
International journal of recent technology and engineering ijrte. Freshwater from salt water using only solar energy youtube. After experimental analysis it was observed that lake water has. Solar distillation and solar energydriven plants 8. Introduction clean drinking water is the basic necessity for every human being, but about 1. Solar distillation of water fsec energy research center. But it is one of the efficient ways that allow access to clean water to people. Water is normally used in thermalpower plants as well as by industrial.
Sep 27, 2017 a federally funded research effort to revolutionize water treatment has yielded an offgrid technology that uses energy from sunlight alone to turn salt water into fresh drinking water. We need something like a premium per cubic meter of water produced by this solar desalination plant, or a guarantee from the state that they are going to purchase each cubic meter of clean water that is required by the public. Distillation is a process that removes filth and contaminants to produce still water from available water. The tdstotal dissolved solids in the pure water is 81ppm. Direct solar desalination systems combine solar energy collection and desalination in one process producing fresh water distillate by directly applying collected solar energy to seawater. Professor david spanagel water touches, and is touched by, all of our daily actions, and many serious problems involving water face all current and future generations. Make your own distilled water from stream or lake water, salt water, or even brackish, dirty water, using these diy solar still plans. It is a simple procedure of humidificationdehumidification that takes place in one and the same device. The untreated water is placed into a still basin which absorbs heat, eventually. Pdf water purification by direct solar distillation process in. Solar distillation differs from other forms of desalination that are more energyintensive, such as methods such as reverse osmosis, or simply boiling water due to its use of free energy.
This idea has been under development and implementation in zones which will probably have to rely on desalination of seawater to meet their potable water needs, such as california. A comparative analysis zachary taillefer, anthony scalzi, ryan stock, and andrew tremblay advisor. It is a fact that plants for producing fresh water from saline sources using solar energy. Jul 28, 2009 solar water distillation for drinking purposes 1. Test and treat before you drink lesson water treatment fact sheet solar disinfection. Fsecen380 february 1984 solar distillation of potable water from saline salty water has been practiced for many years in tropical and. Pb 201 029 from the national technical information service, order department, springfield, va 22161. Solar distillation of water florida solar energy center. It can be used directly in a variety of thermal applications like heating water of air, drying, distillation, and cooking. Desalination and water distilling is not a new process but in fact it is a very old method. There are many amazing diy water distiller designs you can easily make at home. Five solar powered water desalination systems green diary. A very common and, by far, the largest example of solar distillation is the natural water cycle that the earth experiences. Water obtained from soil and plant materials by a simple distillation technique can provide a means for survival under desert conditions.
A solar still distills water with substances dissolved in it by using the heat of the sun to evaporate water so that it may be cooled and collected, thereby purifying it. Solar chimney powerwater distillation plant scpwdp. Solar distillation is the only attractive process for salinebrackish water by using solar energy. Solarpowered device turns salt water into fresh drinking. A great way to ensure your water is suitable to drink is to distill it. He has published more than 35 scientific papers in the field of solar energy and water treatment, coauthor of three books in the field of solar desalination. Thermal modeling and efficiency of solar water distillation. Once the sun path has been determined, students are required to construct a model of a solar distillation unit. Solar water distillation is the process of using energy from the sunlight to separate freshwater from salts or other contaminants.
Solar distillation of water from soil and plant materials. Passive solar water distillation is an inexpensive, lowtech alternative for pure drinking water without bottles, including types of distillers, cost comparisons, going automatic or electric. A solar water distiller uses solar energy that can separate salt or brackish into fresh drinking water through the. Solar water distillation is the process of using the energy from sunlight to separate freshwater from salts or other contaminants. A blueprint for 100% solar desalination solarpaces. Pdf this study aims at contributing to the production of drinking water by solar distillation process. Overview on solar driven water treatment different approaches for the utilization of. Solar water distillation safe drinking water foundation. Solar still is a passive solar distillation process and the only energy source needed is. The plant generates electricity and produces distilled water by direct evaporation of water using the same geometry as the conventional solar chimney power plant scpp. The price of the solar panels are also a main determinant of the cost of the plant.
The solar water distillation comes out to be a non toxic and promising device which purifies water that uses a renewable solar energy source, efficiency of the solar water distillation device can be enhanced by increasing evaporation rate that is a combined effect of. Pdf distillation of water by solar energy sweet priyanga. Multipleeffect distillation or multieffect distillation med is a distillation process often used for sea water desalination. The untreated water is placed into a still basin which absorbs heat, eventually reaching high temperatures, causing the water to evaporate, cool and condense into vapour, leaving the contaminants in the underlying basin. These solar energy distilling plants are relatively inexpensive, lowtechnology systems, especially useful where the need for small plants exists. How solar powered distillation of water works energy. The basic concept of the typical solar still starts with the suns energy going. Efficiency of the solar water distillation device can be enhanced by increasing evaporation rate that is a combined effect of solar radiation, cover glass temperature, water contamination density, base plate absorptive and provide additional heat by solar water preheating system. Solar distillation becomes very attractive in inexpensive longterm low technology systems especially useful where the need for small plant exists. A project report on solar still submitted in partial fulfillment for the award of the degree of bachelor of technology in mechanical engineering from rajasthan technical university, kota session 2012 guided by. The untreated water absorbs heat, slowly reaching high temperatures. There are two common methods of solar desalination. In each stage the feed water is heated by steam in tubes, usually by spraying saline water onto th.
This plant, located in chile, supplied as much as 20 000. The plant was officially opened on june 21, 1961 by then president john f. The solar distillation is the technique in which water is evaporated by the help of solar energy and the same is collected in the condensed form as purified water. Distillate solar distillation potable pv ro pv ed wind ro. Solar desalination for domestic applicationsmehdi n. In each stage the feed water is heated by steam in tubes, usually by spraying saline water onto them.
Rafiqulalambeg bangladesh university of engineering and technology buet strictly as per the compliance and regulations of. Solar distillation devices for the production of pure water operate at high. In the light of increased water usage and depleting natural water supplies, the. Water collects on the under side of the plastic, runs to the point of the cone, and. Desalination using solar energy will play a crucial role to solve water scarcity. Purifying water using passive solar water distillation real. Salstill passive solar distiller animation youtube.
The input of this device would be salt water from coastal regions. Solar still,a water purifying technique project report. The technical brief contains the information on solar distillation process that provides clean and safe drinking water to people living in areas with less access to it. Concept design, modeling and simulation junggil lee, wooseung kim, juneseok choi, noreddine ghaffour, youngdeuk kim pages 278292.
In addition, the small plastic solar stills have been employed to provide potable water for life rafts floating in the ocean during world war ii. Solar distillation is another application which dates back to the nineteenth century and the simplest form of water still now in use is basically unchanged from the early designs which consisted of a shallow tray, filled with salt or brackish water, and covered by a sloping glass cover plate. Professor kenny stevens talks about homemade solar water distillers, which use evaporation and condensation to purify water. The solar option and parabolic through water heating solar energy is a very large, inexhaustible source of energy. However, it was not before late 19 th century, that the first large scale solar water distillation plant was built. Build your own diy water distiller to use in an emergency or when no water is available. People in kiunga, kenya drink water from givepowers solarpowered desalination plant. Distillation is literally the method seen in nature, whereby. With just a few basic building materials, a sheet of glass and some sunshine, you can purify your own water. Water that is not properly treated or filtered can contain all types of harmful compounds. The basin time solar stills are simple in design, manufacturing. In most of these attempts, solar distillation was utilized for clean water production and some side effects of the solar distillation were utilized for electricity generation, which led to low.
Solar desalination is an elegant combo since the solar heat, which in arid areas creates problems with fresh water shortages, is used to counteract the problem. This plant, located in chile, supplied as much as 20 000 liters of safe water to nearby inhabitants. The history of solar powered water distillation started with aristotle, already back in the 4 th century bc, described a technique of solar powered water distillation. How do you use the sun to turn seawater into clean water. Solar pv driven ro plant designed by fraunhofer ise and tested in cyprus. A new solar chimney power distillation plant scpwdp is proposed and studied in this work. Solar stills for desalination of water in rural households. Solar water distillation has begun over a century ago. Solar energy can be used both directly and indirectly.938 98 462 1250 873 1077 1363 1131 973 119 502 755 1045 1568 1000 73 89 395 1007 839 74 1051 288 510 930 1079 992 155 1090 1177 179 919 1126 1051 1042 469 967 1120 591 497 544 600 278 956 1150 447 431 266