Human activity causes 10 times more erosion of continental surfaces than all natural processes combined, an analysis by a university of michigan geologist shows. Much of the carving up of the landscape is done by water particularly rivers. Water is one of the strongest erosive agents that has a great potential to disturb the soil surface. Development of management strategies to control soil erosion in. Rainsplash erosion is most effective in dislodging sediments on bare soils. This factsheet looks at the causes and effects of water, wind and tillage erosion on agricultural land. Air pollution caused by fine particles in suspension can affect. Wind erosion is a common cause of land degradation in the arid and semi arid.
Soil erosion can be a slow process that continues relatively unnoticed or can occur at an alarming rate, causing serious loss of topsoil. The effect of upstream land use practices on soil erosion and. Erosion removes the best, most fertile part of the soil, the topsoil where most of the plant nutrients and soil carbon are found. Effects of erosion control practices on nutrient loss. Soil particles are detached eroded, transported as sediment and deposited sedimentation by wind, water, ice or gravity. Soil erosion and control measures on the loess plateau, china. Thus, soil erosion is a continuous process and may occur either at a relatively unnoticed rate or an alarming rate contributing to copious loss of the topsoil.
Sustainable land management can help control soil erosion, protect watersheds and. Chapter 2 causes and effects of erosion and sedimentation. Extensive erosion also minimizes the depth of soil available for water storage and rooting. Causes, effects, and solutions of soil erosion conserve energy. Sheet erosion affects a whole area, when water or the wind act like a broom to clear out the topsoil. Soil erosion is the movement and transport of soil by various agents, particularly water, wind, and mass movement. Soil erosion is the weathering away of topsoil caused by water, wind or tillage. Several studies reported the significance of the off site effects of soil erosion on land degradation eg.
The full impact of a raindrop in producing this erosion is minimized by the presence of vegetation, low gradient slopes, the inherent resistance of soil to displacement, and the intensity. Respondents affirmed that erosion contributed to poor health of livestocks due to lack of pasture grass to feed on, loss of grazing land and poor bush regrowth. Erosion control measures and techniques have made a great progress on erosion control and promoted socialeconomic. Soil and water conservation in the three gorges reservoir area of china is important, and soil erosion is a significant issue. Brennand 2009, pervasive aqueous paleoflow feature s in the. This layer is rich in the essential nutrients required by the plants and the soil. All soils undergo soil erosion, but some are more vulnerable than others due to human activities and other natural causal factors. Ice melting of ice, water especially heavy rains and floods, wind, and gravity. Soil erosion can also lead to mudslides and floods, negatively affecting the structural integrity of buildings and roadways. Pdf a subset of the sinuous ridges srs in the aeoliszephyria plana azp region of mars has been previously. In this lesson, you will learn about the specific effects of soil erosion and measures that can be taken to prevent it. The outcomes of soil erosion are reduced agricultural productivity, ecological collapse, soil degradation, and the possibility of desertification. Soil is naturally removed by the action of water or wind. Effects of erosion include siltation of rivers, crop failure at low lying areas due to flooding, pollution of waterbodies due to the various chemicals brought by the runoff from different areas.
Sediment production san francisco state university. Soil erosion is one of the most serious environmental problems in the world today and with decreased soil fertility causes the destruction of our natural ecosystems like pastures, forests and agricultural ecosystems bayramin et al. Causes of soil erosion soil erosion occurs when natural forces, such as wind. The surface area of erosion features was divided in slope, hypsometric, aspect and road age classes by arcgis9.
Vegeta tion can regenerate from a degraded state as long as the seed stock remains viable and there is soil for seeds to germinate and grow in. The appearance of plants and so of soil in the geological time scale. One of the effects of erosion is the changing of the landscape. Soil erosion is the loss of soil from land due to the effects of wind and water currents. Because much eroded sediment is deposited in or near the field of origin, only a fraction of the total eroded soil from an area contributes to sediment yield from a watershed. Gross erosion includes sheet, rill, gully and channel erosion, and is the first step in the process of sediment delivery. Magnitude and the impacts of soil erosion on productivity depend on soil profile and horizonation, terrain, soil management, and climate characteristics. One of the topics studied in gcse geography is soil erosion and degradation. Depending on the duration and intensity of a rainfall, soils can exhibit signs of one of the four forms of the damage, including.
Arresting soil erosion visualizing its causes, effects and. The soil erosion site the onsite impacts of erosion. In the present study, spatial markov chains were applied to explore the impacts of the regional context on soil erosion in the xiangxi river watershed, and thematic mapper remote sensing data from 1999 and 2007 were employed. Soil erosion reduces cropland productivity and contributes to the pollution of adjacent watercourses, wetlands and lakes. Soil compaction, low organic matter, loss of soil structure, poor internal drainage, salinisation and soil acidity problems are other serious soil degradation conditions that can accelerate the soil erosion. The severity of soil erosion is also dependent on the soil type and the presence of vegetation cover. Start studying weathering and soil section 3 soil erosion. Little or no mixing of the subsoil with the plow layer. Second, it will introduce and describe a category of state stat. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Soil erosion removes the top fertile layer of the soil. Soil erosion is a wide spread problem in both developing and developed countries. It is a naturally occurring process soil always shifts from one location to another and, under normal conditions, this shifting takes place in a slow and gradual manner.
First, it will present a brief synopsis of early initiatives to curb soil erosion and water waste on agricul turallands. Consequences are explained below erosion occurs due to four causes. Tolerable erosion rates policy process to decide but soil loss 1 thayr accelerated over natural rate. Gcse geography soil erosion and degradation damages ecosystems. Water and wind are the two main mechanisms by which soil is eroded and transported. Soil sealing can lead to heatisland effect and cause overflooding of unsealed. Read this article to learn about the meaning, factors, effects, types, causes and prevention of soil erosion. Pesticides and other chemicals can get trapped in soil, polluting streams and rivers as the soil breaks apart. The top soil is lost by erosion which is the most fertile section, having evolved over centuries of soil forming processes. Erosion and sediment control burlington, nc official website.
Soil erosion is a disastrous form of environment degradation whose effects is multi dimensional. To combine the benefits of conservation tillage soil conservation with the. It is recommended that awareness on the negative effect of human causes of erosion should be created while simple technologies on soil erosion control should be pushed to the farmers. Dregne soil erosion is the main reason why desertification is irreversible. Much damage is also done oy wind erosion, but this phase of the problem is not treated here. In this paper, the diverse factors that cause soil erosion are assessed. Untitled federation of eurasian soil silence societies. The degraded soil does not support crop production and leads to low crop productivity. Pdf inverted fluvial features in the aeoliszephyria plana region.
The top soil is loaded with nutrients and organic matter critical for crop growth. Causes, processes and effects soil erosion is a growing problem and constitutes a threat to soil quality and to the ability of soils to provide environmental services. Lets have a look at the most common causes of soil erosion. Offsite effects of soil erosion in addition to its onsite effects, the soil that is detached by accelerated water or wind erosion may be transported considerable distances. Due to formation of gullies and ravines, valuable agricultural lands are lost. Measures to combat land degradation caused due to drought.
So, rational use of water resources, erosion control and socialeconomic development for local farmers are most important things we must to do. The topography of a given landscape, its rainfall andor wind exposure all combine to. Soil erosion is a naturally occurring and slow process that refers to loss of fields top soil by water and wind or through conversion of natural vegetation to. State soil erosion control laws, conservation plans and. The causes and effects of soil erosion, and how to prevent it. In this study, the diverse factors that cause soil erosion are evaluated. To help decrease any problems caused by erosion, one method is limiting the space where the soil is moved around during the excavation process, explained in site engineering for landscape architects. Soil loss under different land use systems in dryland. In the past 150 years half the topsoil on the planet has been lost. Soil erosion and water shortage are main problems on loess plateau. Pdf methods to evaluate corrosion in buried steel structures.
Bullock, in encyclopedia of soils in the environment, 2005. Rill and gully erosion happen when impromptu streams form for water to carry away topsoil. What are the causes, consequences, and solutions of soil erosion. The impact of soil erosion on agricultural potential and. Soil erosion is the wearing away of the land surface by physical. This quiz looks not only at the causes of soil erosion, but also the effects such as how it damages ecosystems. The main onsite impact of soil erosion is the reduction in soil quality which results from the loss of the nutrientrich upper layers of the soil, and the reduced waterholding capacity of many eroded soils. Agdex 572751 october 2012 replaces omafra factsheet, soil erosion causes and effects, order no. Ways soil can affect your construction project general. Workshop on common criteria for risk area identification in. This loss of cropland to the effects of soil erosion often results in the. The details of checlc ing and preventing erosion and restoring to use the recoverable areas are not included, nee that important side of the problem deserves a full paper in itself.
In the iowa cooperative soil survey program, erosion classes are defined quantitatively. People cause more soil erosion than all natural processes. Aug 21, 2015 causes of soil erosion, effects of soil erosion and conservation of soil erosion are discussed in this video by dr. Although erosion is a natural process it is accelerated by practices such as land clearing, overgrazing, some cultivations and poorly constructed farm roads and dams.
And during the construction process, soil becomes loose and loses its stability. Weathering and soil section 3 soil erosion flashcards. It is estimated that the transboundary rivers that originate from the ethiopian highlands carry about 1. It has been recognized as a major problem since the 1930s and, although there has been some 70 years of research into the causes and processes, it is still increasing and of.335 98 629 820 904 1427 1152 1461 596 1010 958 260 786 118 185 733 434 641 679 673 16 189 29 758 110 621 581 997 1224 1379 1202 1081 728 1225 1289 51